OSSO Sand Competitive 4s Rules

Official rules are the USA Volleyball rules with the following OSSO adaptations:

Teams & Players: Teams shall be composed of 5 rostered players. Teams with fewer than 3 players are incomplete and forfeit the game or match. Team must contain at least on female player on court at all times.

Scoring: A game is won by the team that first scores 21 points with a lead of two points. In case of a 21-21 tie, play is continued until a 2-point advantage is reached or until a cap of 27 is reached(e.g. 23-21 or 27-26). Rally scoring will be used.

Match Play: A best two-out-of-three games match is won by the team that wins two games. In case of a 1-1 tie, a deciding game to fifteen points shall be played immediately.

Court Switches: In 21-point games, court switches will occur after each game.

Service Rotation Order/Player Position: The service rotation order specified by the starting line-up must be maintained throughout the game. Players are free to position themselves anywhere within their court. There are no positional faults.

States of Play:
  • Ball “In Play” – The ball is “in play” from the service contact until the ball is out of play.
  • Ball “Out of Play” – The ball is “out of play” from the moment the ball contacts the ground or a fault is committed.
Ball “In” – The ball is “in” when, after being put in play, its first contact with the ground is on the playing court or a boundary line or when it causes a boundary line to move.
Ball “Out” – The ball is “out” when:
  • After being put in play, its first contact with the ground is completely outside the playing court and it does not cause boundary lines to move;
  • It completely crosses the net outside the crossing space after the attacking team’s third contact.
  • It touches an object outside the court, an overhead object or a person out of play; or It touches the antennas, ropes, posts or the net outside the antenna.


A. First Service In A Game
  • The first service of the first game and any deciding game is executed by the team determined by the rock/papers/scissors.
  • The first service of the second game will be determined by the choice of the team captain who lost the rock/papers/scissors match prior to the first game.
B. Execution Of The Service
  • The server may move freely behind the end line. At the moment of the service or take-off for service, the server must not touch the ground outside the service zone. The player’s foot may not go under a boundary line. After the service contact, the player may land on the court or outside the service zone.
  • If a boundary line moves without being touched by the server, it is not a fault.


Playing the Ball:
Characteristics of the Contact:
  • A player may touch the ball with any part of the body.
  • A player may have successive contacts with the ball during a single attempt to make the team’s first contact provided the fingers are not used to direct the ball.
  • The ball must be contacted cleanly and not held, lifted, pushed, caught, carried or thrown. The ball cannot roll or come to rest on any part of a player’s body. It can rebound in any direction.
  • A contact of the ball using the fingers of one or two hands to direct the ball toward a teammate is a set. A player may set the ball in any direction toward his/her team’s court. Rotation of a set ball may indicate a held ball or multiple contacts during the set but in itself is not a fault.
  • When contacting the ball with one hand, other than for setting the ball toward a teammate, the ball must be cleanly hit with the heel or palm of the hand. If the ball is intentionally set into the opponent’s court, the player must contact the ball above his/her shoulders and must direct the ball perpendicular to the direction his/her shoulders are facing.
  •  No “open-handed” tipping: players who contact the ball with one hand and are putting the ball over the net, must cleanly hit with the heel or palm of hand (a roll shot), with straight, locked fingers and a locked wrist (a cobra), knurled fingers (a camel toe), or with the back of the hand (locked wrist and locked fingers/knuckles). One-handed placement or redirection of the ball with the fingers (dink or open-handed tip) is a fault.
  • A player may never use an open hand to volley a serve nor can a player execute an open-handed volley on first contact (every time the ball crosses the net, including free balls) with the ball unless it is hard-driven (the serve is never considered a hard-driven ball regardless of its velocity)
  • A hard driven ball is classified as a ball hit with a full swing and has very little arc.
Playing Faults: The following types of faults can occur during an attempt to play the ball:
  • Four hits: a team contacts the ball four times before returning it to the opponents.
  • Assisted hit: a player takes support from a teammate or any object in order to reach the ball.
  • Double contact: a player contacts the ball twice in succession or the ball contacts various parts of the player’s body successively.
  • Held ball: a player does not contact the ball cleanly.


Ball at the Net:
A. Ball Crossing the Net.
  • A ball sent to the opponent’s playing area must pass over the net within the crossing space. The crossing space is the part of the vertical plane of the net limited to below (by the top of the net) and sides (by the antennas (posts) and their imaginary extensions).
  • A ball completely crossing the net below the net or entirely outside the antennas (posts) may be recovered within the limits of the three team contacts.
  • A ball completely crossing the net above the net and within or over the antennas (posts) may not be recovered.

B. Ball Touching the Net.

  • The ball may touch the net while crossing the net.

C. Ball In The Net (Other Than The Service).

  • A ball driven into the net may be recovered within the limits of the three team contacts.
D. Let serves will be played.


Player at the Net: Penetration Into the Opponent’s Playing Area and Space.
  • Players may partially or completely cross the center line below the net or outside the poles, either before, during or after a legal play of the ball, provided this does not interfere with the opponent’s play. Incidental contact with an opponent is ignored, unless such contact interferes with the opponent’s opportunity to play the ball.
  • If a player crosses the center line and interferes with an opponent during the continuation of a play, it is a fault, regardless of the opponent’s ability to play the ball.
  • While opposing players are not required to avoid the ball or the player, they cannot intentionally interfere with any legal attempt to play the ball on their court.

Blocking Contact: No restrictions exist as to which players may participate in a block.